It was another busy day in Austin, TX for the CJRW team.  Sessions that featured the likes of Guy Kawasaki, Q&A panels with Mark Cuban, and topics like bots and so much more.  Below are a few of the highlights and key take aways.  Stay tuned for more.

 The Art of Pre-suasion

A crowd of more than one thousand people attended the SXSW session, “The Art of Pre-suasion.” This session featured a discussion between Guy Kawasaki, Chief Evangelist of Canva, and Robert Cialdini, President & CEO of Influence at Work, regarding the art of “pre-suasion” and persuasion – how to change people’s hearts, minds and actions.

Kawasaki introduced Cialdini as one of his heroes, saying, “The Book ‘Influence’ by Cialdini changed my life. I just devoured it. It had just a fantastic influence on me. It really changed my life. It taught me how to evangelize things.”

Kawasaki then opened the discussion by asking Cialdini what persuasion is, asking, “What is the difference between pre-suasion and persuasion? 

Cialdini said, “Persuasion is what you put into your appeal to get people to say yes.” He stated the following example to explain it. “People think you know what you’re talking about if you use precise figures. $75,578 versus $75,000. People will assume that you know what you’re talking about.” Another example he gave was that if you can track a trend toward a majority choice, people will assume that that will be the majority choice in the future and move in that direction. A food store in Japan added signs to a product saying, “Only Three Per Customer.” Sales of that product doubled. 

Cialdini then went on to explain pre-suasion. “It’s the process of arranging for people to agree with a message before they encounter it. Adding a detail to your message that you really want people to focus on. Asking people to focus in advance of the message. That is pre-suasion. It creates the mindset with the feature of the message you want them to pay attention to. Focus them on the critical portion of the message.”

He gave the following example to help explain pre-suasion. An online furniture store did a study. They sent half of their visitors to a landing page where the background was fluffy clouds. They sent the other half to a landing page where the background was pennies. The people who saw the clouds purchased more comfortable furniture. They were trained in advance to want comfort. Those people exposed to the image of pennies purchased more inexpensive furniture. In each case, people were pre-suaded to either buy comfortable furniture or cheaper furniture. When customers were asked afterward, did the clouds or pennies have an impact on their purchase, they thought that idea was ridiculous and that the images had no impact at all. Cialdini said, “These images actually shaped their internal preferences so they were ready for either comfort or price.”

Kawasaki laughingly asked Cialdini, “If a car brand were to show people images of the sky on their website, would people want to buy convertibles?” Cialdini said, “YES! Whatever is the central feature that you want people to focus on, you try to send that message to direct their actions.”

Kawaski then asked Cialdini if pre-suasion takes the place of persuasion? Cialdini said, “It leads the way for persuasion. It’s the moment before you deliver you message. It’s the launching pad for delivering your message. It accelerates persuasion.”

Cialdini shared a great example with the attendees of how pre-suasion worked on him once. He told a story about a man who knocked at his door and was asking for money for afterschool programs for kids. “The man had no credentials at all. I gave him more money than I usually give to an accredited group.” He said. “Wait?! I put my career on the line telling people that this is how you influence. He didn’t use a single one of those elements on me! So what did he do? He brought his 7-year old daughter with him! That readied me for his message about children’s needs and challenges. It made me focus on an element of his message – children’s issues. I thought, there’s a book here! That lead me to pre-suasion.”

Kawaski responded, “OH! You had no chance!”

“Which is more important, persuasion or pre-suasion?” Kawasaki asked. Cialdini said that, “persuasion is still more important. Pre-suasion only accelerates the message.” He then used a soft drink example to explain it. A brand handed out flyers for a new soft drink. In one flyer, handed out to half the people, if you wanted to receive a sample of a new drink, you had to provide your email address. Thirty percent of people provided their email. The other half were given a flyer that started out asking, “Do you consider yourself an adventurous person?” Fifty-five percent of people provided their email address. Cialdini said, “This put people into a mindset of being adventurous and they acted that way. Pre-suasion makes the point that what guides our behavior is not the most accurate or wisest feature, it’s the one that is top of mind. Whatever is top of mind guides behavior.”

Kawasaki then asked Cialdini if a great subject line is needed to pre-suade. “Is that the act of pre-suasion?” he asked. Cialdini laughed and said, “Funny you should ask. A study was done by Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines. They had the idea of reduced pricing for existing customers. It would be a limited time offer. They did an AB study. They emailed an offer to half of people that differed in only one way from the other half. In the subject line in one offer, there were two ticking clock emojis. Three percent more people opened the ad with the emoji! Fifteen percent of those people clicked through to the offer. They had been readied to react by seeing the ticking clocks! The client said that they had a several hundred percent increase in profit by using this approach.” He added, “What is on your landing page, or what is on the first page of your presentation, readies people for the aspect of your case that you want people to most focus on.” Kawaski frowned and said, “I don’t have any images on the first page of my presentations!”

Cialdini was then asked to give an example of someone or a brand that really nailed the pre-suasion approach. He pointed out Berkshire-Hathaway, Warren Buffet’s company. “A single share of BH stock goes for more than $262,000 per share. Per share! How does he do it? How does he get them to buy that? In his annual shareholder reports, he does what no one else does. In the letter to shareholders, he describes something that went wrong, a mistake, an error from the previous year. That is so disarming because we trust that guy. He’s not burying the mistakes. He’s telling us upfront. Then he says here’s what we will do to make sure that we never make that mistake again. That creates a sense of trustworthiness that is so disarming. He got me trained and focused that the next thing he says is going to be believable.  I can trust this guy! Last year he put a mistake from 1993 in the report because they didn’t make a real mistake that year.”

Kawasaki closed the discussion by asking, “Is there a way to get buy-in from clients on messaging?” Cialdini stated that, “We want to have buy-in from partners. We typically ask them to give us feedback on our plans and strategies. We ask them what needs to be included. We always ask for their opinion. Mistake! When we ask for their opinion, they take a step back psychologically and introspect. We pushed them away. Instead of asking for their opinion, ask for their ADVICE! They will move toward you psychologically. They become a collaborator and partner in their mind.”

Guy Kawasaki is the chief evangelist of Canva, an online graphic design tool. Formerly, he was an advisor to the Motorola business unit of Google and chief evangelist of Apple. He is also the author of The Art of Social Media, The Art of the Start, APE: Author, Publisher, Entrepreneur, Enchantment, and nine other books. Kawasaki has a bachelor’s degree from Stanford University and an MBA from UCLA, as well as an honorary doctorate from Babson College.

Dr. Robert Cialdini has spent his entire career researching the science of influence, earning him an international reputation as an expert in the fields of persuasion, compliance and negotiation. Because of the world-wide recognition of Dr. Cialdini’s cutting edge scientific research and his ethical business and policy applications, he is frequently regarded as the “Godfather of influence.”

Mark Cuban:  Is Government Disrupting Disruption? 

In today’s market, government regulation can be the make or break difference in working in a specific market or being able to work at all. Startups like Uber, Lyft and Airbnb have all run into government regulations, both good and bad, in an effort to disrupt their industries. 

Mark Cuban, who’s known for his position in business with Shark Tank and as the NBA Mavericks team owner, was joined by Adam Lyons of The Zebra insurance comparison software.  Both Cuban and Lyons admit to being high school dropouts who then went to college.  Mark was one of the first investors in The Zebra after Lyons simply sent him an email asking for advice.  The panel was moderated by Michele Skelding, who previously served as Senior Vice President of Global Technology and Innovation for the Austin Chamber of Commerce in Austin, Texas, and currently serves as an Entrepreneurial Advisor at the University of Texas at Austin's Cockrell School of Engineering Innovation Center.

Cuban opened remarks stating that “disruptors are everything” and even when you’ve failed a number of times, it only takes that one win to understand that failures are okay and there will be more.  Cuban also noted that 

When the conversations turned to regulation, many of the questions turned to Lyon of The Zebra, asking him why he chose such a highly regulated industry like insurance.  He said that they actually see it as an advantage, saying “you have to be willing to hustle, but once you determine the structure and platform, it can set you apart from anyone else in the industry.” Cuban expanded on this, saying that many of his successes came from not worrying about regulations until he grew into them, for example, his startup Broadcast.com and internet streaming had a lot of regulations to consider with the FTC and others, but they went in anyways.  That worked out considering the near $6 billion purchase from Yahoo. However, on the flip side, Cuban also noted a recent miss when he felt that regulations would hinder growth for an investment opportunity in a new startup, so he now thinks “what if” when he sees that startup “Uber” growing so quickly.  “I should have learned from my own lesson to just go, ready, fire, aim.”

The conversation turned to the future and where disruption was going to be seen most.  Cuban said that he felt that automation of software was a key area to pay attention to.  “If I’m a CPA, I’m concerned, cause software is coming, and AI will allow for it to automate and correct itself,” said Cuban. He also noted that “entertainment is the best solution to boredom, where people go to fill that time is the future.”  Cuban used the example of Snapchat, saying that for 13-22 year olds, it’s the new version of the television. 

Cuban stressed that he has high hopes for the direction of government and how it will play a role moving forward, but looking at the crowd he also stressed the importance of ignoring the noise and focusing on doing what you have set for your goals. “It’s really up to you to make those things happen,” said Cuban.

Designing for Accessibility

When it comes to web design and user experience, one of the most asked questions we get relates to accessibility standards and if a client’s website is accessible to the disabled, and if it should be a concern. As CJRW learned in the talk, “Designing for Accessibility,” lead by Jordan Dunn, Senior Product Designer at WillowTree Apps. WillowTree builds apps for GE and other Fortune 500 companies. Dunn explains how this topic hits very close to home for him, and how important it is to be empathetic to the needs of the visually impaired.

Dunn, a long-time designer, had always struggled with blurred vision and often “sees double” even with his glasses.  After finally being approved as a candidate for Lasik, Dunn went into surgery optimistic, but after surgery his vision had become significantly worse.  This was going to have a serious impact on his design career and overall lifestyle. Dunn had always felt empathy for the overall user he designs for, but now found himself in need of the same accessibility tools that he may have overlooked before.  

Dunn stated that more than 8 million people in the United States alone have some form of visual impairment like hyperopia (far sighted), cataracts, 

glaucoma or standard blindness.  That’s more visually impaired people living in the U.S. alone than the entire individual populations of Canada, Italy and Mexico.

WillowTree and Dunn initiated a research project that developed personas and data around the needs of the visually impaired. They contacted organizations, schools, Reddit forums, friends and family to gather info and ask questions. Their findings were interesting, noting five out of eight respondents were aware of accessibility features or how they can use them.  Standard utilities on phones and other software includes screen curtains, brail keyboards, color inversions and more. Some even stated that they didn’t want to use the voiceover tools because it would make them feel “too disabled.”  Dunn showed that these findings meant that the tools needed to be easier and more standardized.  

Uber and Lyft both do a great job of in-app accessibility. Dunn reached out to Lyft and met Marco, a former animator who lost his sight and is now Director of Accessibility at Lyft.  Marco had reached out publically on Twitter to Lyft when he discovered their app had some serious issues. Lyft invited Marco to visit and listened to his concerns. They then offered him a job on the spot to guide their accessibility efforts.  Marco and Dunn said that in the real world of news/publications, the BBC is the shining star in web accessibility, offering up info all about their standards and how they implement them.  Another company making unique advancements in accessibility is Disney and their Disney Movies Anywhere App.  It allows visually impaired individuals to hear an audio description of the film, while syncing with the soundtrack of the file itself.  This offers a more in-depth experience to someone who may not be able to see the movie, but with both of these elements, the film is still able to come to life for the individual. 

Dunn noted that there is some low-hanging fruit when it comes to making sure your website or app is taking the right steps for accessibility, including simple items like labeling your buttons and modal window close links.  A modal without a label can quickly make a site completely in-accessible. He also said to avoid using color to relay important information – “a red color to alert an overdraft in mobile banking doesn’t help someone who can’t see that color,” said Dunn.

Dunn and WillowTree offer up the full presentation and a helpful toolkit of resources at Willowtreeapps.com/accessibility.

The Power of Audio: Why the Hardest Working Media is Between Your Ears

Susan Panico, Head of Strategic Connections at Pandora, lead a SXSW panel discussion titled, “Why the Hardest Working Media is Between Your Ears.”

The panel consisted of Scott Burnell, Global Lead for Business Development at Ford Motor Company, Pranav Yadav from Neuro-Insight U.S., and Chris Smith,

Brand Creative Group Head at The Richards Group. The group discussed the fact that audio is the advertising industry’s secret weapon for capturing attention and emotionally connecting with an audience. Audio also might just be the most native of all digital ads. 

Panico opened the discussion by asking the audience the following question, “How many of you look at your phone first thing in the morning and last thing in the evening?” The majority of the crowd raised their hands. She noted that that made complete sense since 80 percent of people have mobile phones, and that the number one use of those devices is listening to music. She said, “What does that mean? You see people donning earbuds and headphones everywhere you go. That is why audio is so powerful. Audio reaches people in an emotive environment with an IV straight into their brain. It’s a powerful medium for story-telling. People are connected in cars, homes, everywhere.” Panico noted that streaming audio use is projected to double by 2020. She also reminded marketers in the crowd that they need to worry about their “Sonic” identity, asking “What does your brand sound like? Which music and experiences do you use to define your brand?”

Burnell noted that his company, Ford, was the first to launch an in-vehicle app – Pandora. He said, “Vehicles have to have connectivity and let people stay connected. The connected car is the new frontier. The car is a battle ground for audio content.” Burnell also said, “You need to make audio messages quick and to the point … but not too distracting. Tailor it to drivers.” Ford is taking data from the vehicles and those around it. They know what you are doing and when you are doing it in your car. They are also working with audio content delivery systems to determine the best time to deliver ads. “Maybe people should be paying attention to the road at a certain time as opposed to audio content,” he said. Technology allowing ads to address real time road conditions are being worked on today. Burnell also stated that audio commercial cues like the Intel or Farmers Insurance cues work to jog the memory of a consumers and help brands to stand out. People notice these commercials without even looking up at the television. That is sonic identity! He also mentioned that you will be able to use Google Alexa in your vehicle soon. Audio AI is the future. 

Yadav addressed that neuroscience allows you to track audio generated stimulus that takes place in the brain. “What you have to do is measure emotional responses in brain activity,” he said. A great example that he shared with the session is the famous Cadbury Gorilla commercial, where the gorilla is playing drums to the Phil Collins song, “In the Air Tonight.” Initial traditional marketing measurements on the commercial were fairly negative when it was first tested. The Cadbury CMO was told not to air the ad. He aired it anyway. The result? Sales increased by 9 percent. Brand favorability increased by 20 percent. AND the song jumped to #14 in the UK after its initial release 20 years earlier. Yadav said, “Commercials need to be memorable. If they do not elicit an emotional response, they don’t make it to the long-term memory and are not memorable. You can use second-by-second memory measurements to determine which parts of commercial are most memorable. The song in the commercial helped to elicit an emotional response and thus make it memorable.” Yadav also talked about the “Under the Radar Effect.” “If you see/hear a sales pitch coming,” he said, “you put up barriers immediately. When the messaging is not directly attacking you and pitching to you, it can be more effective.” 

Smith admitted to the audience that “20 years ago, I fell in love with a radio campaign – Motel 6. I heard that and decided to go into advertising.” Now he’s the creative director on the Motel 6 campaign at The Richards Group. “People think it’s the medium of the past, but to me there are more ways to access audio than ever before. So it’s really the golden age of audio. More brands are seeing it as a center piece of marketing because of levels of use and connectivity and mobile use,” Smith said. He then played a Motel 6 radio commercial that was written by copywriters who weren’t even alive when the original Tom Bodett campaign began. They wanted to keep the campaign relevant by adding current pop culture references and millennial-esque lingo. Smith said, “Tom Bodett didn’t know what he was saying, but knew that he had to say it.” Smith also spoke to the point that people are figuring out that ads/content can be longer, like a podcast, or even shorter, not just the normal 30-second commercial. He played a great example of a five-second Quikrete commercial that says, “Fast setting concrete. Long story short. Quikrete!” Smith also said, “Audio, more than any other medium, is something people do while doing something else. Driving, working, etc. It’s the one medium you can use while working. This medium more than any other is made for multi-tasking.”

Social is More than a Metric

“Social media is an industry like no other. It moves faster than any other market in history, and its value can’t be summed up with one metric. Stop asking me to prove the value of social. Start figuring out your challenges and I’ll tell you the way social can help solve them and impact your bottom line.

It’s personal. It’s bi-directional. And its data is some of the richest we’ve ever seen. But at the same time, social has taken your brand out of your control, while also asking you to be more participatory than ever. How will it evolve over the next five years, and what do you need to do to stay ahead?”

Brands sometimes fixate on one metric for social, like a brand’s number of followers, as the key metric for success. In the session, “Social is More than a Metric,” Rod Favaron, CEO of Spredfast, explained the nuances of social media and how traditional media metrics won’t work. Social is interactive, not passive like traditional media.

To succeed on social, market your brand by making content that is human and relatable.  When a brand broadcasts its personality, a potential for interactions exists. Favaron said that brands should dedicate a portion of their budget to research and development, or “R&D,” and constantly be innovating.  Brands need to be highly personalized. Favaron showed the audience a few examples of brands that got it right. The first one is Taco Bell. The interaction below has nothing to do with food, but the Illuminati. 

The Victoria Secret Fashion Show let us go behind-the-scenes during taping on social media. This ended up receiving two times more engagement than the actual broadcast of the show. 

In 2016, Spredfast collected data on 20 big brands.  In their study, they found brands create on average 4,000 pieces of content a month. Out of all of the content and messages a brand sent, 95 percent were one-to-one, or the brand talking to an individual user like in the Taco Bell example. Five percent were one-to-many, or the brand publishing its own content to talk to a large group of people. Interestingly, 89 percent of tweets were ignored by the brands, or one-to-none. A huge potential exists for brands to engage with individuals on the personal level and create a lasting relationship. 

Favaron released a measurement tool the Spredfast team developed last week called the “Bill-Ellen Brand-Human Spectrum.” He said that brands need to know what kind of person they are on social media. Brands need to have a plan and stay loyal to their brand. Talking to customers is required, and brands do not need to look at it like customer service – it is marketing. Plot your brand on a human scale. Are you more Bill Belichick or Ellen DeGeneres? Both can give a brand success online, but Ellen would answer every interaction, while Bill may not. Know your brand and know its brand tone-of-voice and personality. 

Shopping & Sacred Social Space

We’ve heard (and said it) a million times: no one wants to be advertised to on social platforms. In the panel, “Shopping & Sacred Social Space,” led by Llibert Argerich of eBay, Christine Cook of Flipboard, Simon Whitcombe of Facebook and Steve Patrizi of Imgur discussed how brands advertise and protect the sacred space of the user’s experience.

The three companies approach advertising on their platforms in three very different ways. Flipboard believes ads should not be marginalized, but take a relevant content-first approach. Facebook has a robust advertising platform and says that using targeting is first and foremost in any campaign. Imgur only started offering ads 18 months ago and believes the content of ads needs to fit the community-oriented Imgur platform.

Today’s audience is very savvy and will notice an ad right away. Christine Cook stated that when users are on Flipboard, they are in their own personal “prime time,” and it varies from person to person. Users are typically not multitasking. They are there reading, and Flipboard has all of their attention. This is the user’s “lean-back” moment – their sacred space. It is a moment for them to be open, and the advertisements need to match the environment.

Whitcombe noted that Facebook has a discovery platform of 1.9 billion people, and its News Feed is the users’ sacred space. Facebook strives to make meaningful connections between businesses and users. Its focus has been personalizing a user’s ad experience to make it distinct. The ads need to be meaningful.

Imgur has a very tight-knit community that calls itself “Imgurians.” Converse to Facebook’s feed, Imgur has one feed for everybody. Imgurians crave the unified feed because it gives the user something in common with someone else. Developers and/or an algorithm doesn’t curate the feed, users do – making it a sacred space. He stated that the introduction of commercial content needs to make the feed better.

Commercial content can make a user’s feed better if it includes lifestyle content, Cook stated. She noted, for example, how a magazine reader is entertained with an ad or a TV viewer is delighted to see how a brand applies its product. The commercial is highly specialized for the specific channel. She believes that the web has done a horrible job of giving retailers and other brands equal placement, like they get with magazine and TV. Ad content is marginalized. In the pursuit of standardization, one size doesn’t fit all. 

Facebook strives to make ad experiences additive. A way it does this is by making ads compete with organic posts. Whitcombe stated that the right product has to be delivered at right time, and that additive ad content starts with targeting. He stated that ad content does not need to be considered purely on the “social space” level, but on the social mobile commerce level. Ads cannot be simply transferred from TV – new creative needs to be designed considering mobile feed delivery. He stated that brands that take the time to tweak for a mobile environment reap the most benefits. Whitcombe stated that Michael Kors has done an excellent job of utilizing Facebook’s offline conversion API to conduct campaigns using Canvas and Carousel ads that produced 2-3 times return on ad spend. Through measurement and offline data, Michael Kors and Facebook are able to drive conversions. For online stores, like Ebay, things are a little easier, but enabling PayPal payments on Facebook and targeting folks with mobile friendly content during the nights and weekends can reap the most reward (and conversions) for brands. 

Moving to the opposite end of the conversion funnel, Cook stated that some ads need to embrace the top of the marketing funnel and focus on awareness. Brands can unlock Millennial spending power by teaching users how to do something or associating the brand with an interest they have identified on the platform. She stated that the last-click attribution model is a great way to measure the effectiveness of this content. Whitcombe stated that we are in the last days of last-click. With more than 50 percent of website traffic coming from mobile, last-click may ignore mobile behavior. He also recommended focusing on the top of the marketing funnel and brand awareness.

Methods to preserve sacred spaces on social platforms vary, but all agree that unique content is needed for different platforms and that content needs to be mobile-focused. While it may be harder for brick-and-mortar stores to determine the best methods to getting a higher conversion rate than online stores, both may find that top-of-the-funnel advertising tactics are better in preserving the sacred social space than overt sales ads. If a brand is directly selling a product, the ad must be additive, highly relevant, targeted, optimized for mobile, and the purchase needs to be frictionless.

Computers, We Should Talk: The Conversational Web

As evident in the last two CJRW daily updates, the rise in “chatbots” is a major theme at SXSW Interactive this year. Continuing on our learning about artificial intelligence (“AI”) and chatbots (“bots”), we attended the panel, “Computers, We Should Talk: The Conversational Web.” Led by Joshua Brustein of Bloomberg, panelists Chris Messina of Stealth Startup (formerly of Facebook, Google and Uber), Dries Buytaert of Acquia, and Drupal and Gela Fridman of Huge discussed conversational interfaces powered by AI and bots. 

Panelists discussed how the internet is evolving from a browser-based, text-heavy experience to one based on natural spoken language, context and AI. 

Conversational interfaces are not new. Developers have been working on bots since the 1990s. The catalyst to the recent acceleration of bots is a combination of accessibility of big data and natural language processors with large, to-scale platforms like Facebook Messenger and Amazon’s Alexa. 

Buytaert said that bots are not going, citing the many different uses and applications for consumers and businesses alike. Unlike panelists in other sessions, he cited the vast uses in customer support as an easy, low friction adoption for brands. Instead of encountering a person on a phone call with no empathy that escalades your inquiry to different levels with different people, the customer service bots can answer your question immediately in a personalized way and anticipate your next question. Gone are the days of IT support asking you if the lights in your modem are on and blinking.  

Messina continued, saying tech is ubiquitous and more liquid, providing perspective from the product design angle. Until now, tech has been delivered through “glass,” or screens. Today millions of people use tech, and we can anticipate what users will do next. As tech becomes smarter and advances, users will need less buttons to push to express intentions. Conversational interfaces allow tech to replace buttons with verbal utterances. It opens up a bidirectional channel so users can negotiation what they want the tech to do with the product designer. It is simply not a customer service application; it is a chance for the brand to hold a giant focus group with consumers. Voice makes computing very casual. 

Adoption is a major challenge for bots and AI; however, panelists all agree that the popularity is not slowing down. Different users interact with bots and AI in different ways, but all have a base level of expectations. Common uses of Alexa are playing music, keeping time and turning lights on and off. Messina stated that light switch technology hasn’t changed in hundreds of years. Folks have always gone up and pushed a button on the wall. Now, users are expecting something different. Messina cited daylight savings time, which occurred today. He woke up this morning to wonder why his clocks didn’t reset. He expects that to happen automatically. Fridman added that her one daughter grew up using the tablet and expects the TV to be touch responsive. She is of the “tablet” generation and doesn’t understand computers. Fridman stated that her 18-month-old second daughter is of the “voice” generation, growing up speaking to Alexa (although she cannot always understand her), and the younger doesn’t know how to work a tablet or understand why the TV doesn’t listen to her. Every generation has different expectations of AI and bots.

Another challenge is that technology has trained users to multitask and with voice technology needs to train users about the disruption voice presents. 

Messina stated that computers are becoming more like us. A potential disappointment exists if bots can only answer 10 percent of questions. However, frustration is inherent with any new technology, Messina said. He sited that friction exists if a user is holding a baby and trying to call an Uber. Voice is a natural way of computing. Messina is not worried if bots only answer 10 percent of our questions. He stated that young people will continue to explore and experiment because it is more natural with voice and bots.

Bots do not need to replace all forms of communication. Conversational products need to be available over different modalities for the user and whatever capacity they may have at the time with which they want to interact. An example is if a user is driving, the user can ask their enabled car, “where can I get a fishing license?” However, if they are giving a talk at SXSW, it would be easier to search online without disrupting the panel. Brands need to deliver an omnichannel experience.